Stimulants belong to a class of drugs that are known to produce cognitive and physical enhancement. They are psychoactive chemical substances that impact the central and peripheral nervous systems. Stimulants are also referred to as psychostimulants and are widely used in prescription medications and for illicit recreational activity. On the street, these drugs are known as “uppers” because of their ability to keep heighten user’s awareness and performance. Based on the drugs activity in the brain some individuals may experience hours of mental stimulation.
Stimulants come under various categories and may be legal or illicit depending on how they are manufactured and used. They may include:
- Caffeine: Found in coffee, tea and caffeinated beverages. Low levels of dependence may occur from frequent habitual use. Side effects may include jitters, restlessness and increase in heart rate. Headache is a common caffeine withdrawal symptom.
- Nicotine: A chemical compound found in the tobacco plant, it is a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid that can be habit forming. This drug is not a controlled substance however it is illegal to sell cigarettes containing nicotine to individuals under 18 years of age. The effects of Nicotine can both stimulate and relax users.
- Amphetamines: These are also known as Dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine and Levoamphetamine. These drugs are sold under various brand names such as Biphetamine, Dexedrine, Adderall and Vyvanse. Street names for amphetamines may include: Black Beauties, Truck Drivers, Uppers, Speed, LA Turnaround, Lid Poppers, Bennie and Eye Openers to name a few.
Amphetamines are usually orally administrated. Tablets can be crushed and smoked, snorted or injected. Side effects following the use of amphetamines may include dramatic and sudden increase in energy levels, mental and physical alertness, rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure, insomnia, seizures, and sometimes life threatening spikes in body temperature. Medical records and research data shows long-term effects of amphetamines can lead to addiction, stroke, suicidal depression, ulcers, repetitive motor activity, cardiac arrhythmias, mental illness, malnutrition and death.
Amphetamine is listed as a Schedule II Controlled Substance by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) Controlled Substance Act (CSA).
- Methamphetamine: This drug is marketed under the brand names Ritalin, Methylin, and Concerta. Street names includes Vitamin R, Skippy, Jiff and The Smart Dog. This stimulant can be consumed through oral administration, injection or snorting. The short and long term effects are similar to those produced by amphetamines.
The FDA has listed Methamphetamine as a Schedule II Controlled Substance subject to penalties enforced by the DEA.
- Cocaine: Is a highly addictive stimulant that is derived from the leaves of the coca plant.
On the street it may be called Coke, Snow White, Nose Candy, Happy Trails, Blow and Flake to name a few. The drug has some legitimate medicinal benefits but is mostly used illegally for recreational purposes. It is typically snorted, injected, ingested by rubbing it on the gums or sprinkling the powder on cigarettes or marijuana joints. The euphoric effects of this stimulant can last as long as 30 minutes.
Common side effects include but are not limited to anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, rapid heart rate, blood pressure and sometime dangerous increase in body temperature. The long-term effects includes addiction, chronic headaches, stroke, nasal septum damage, heart disease, heart attack, psychosis and death.
Cocaine is primarily a Schedule I Controlled Substance subject to strict penalties when abused. As a treatment for Parkinson’s disease the drug comes under a Schedule III Controlled Substance classification.
- MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a popular illicit stimulant commonly referred to on the street as Ecstasy, Molly, E, X, XTC, ADAM, Rolls, Pills and Love Drug to name a few. This stimulant is typically administered orally in tablet form. Common effects of this drug includes euphoria, feelings of intense empathy, body overheating, nausea, chills, fainting and extreme anxiety. Addiction to MDMA stimulation can lead to depression as a result of serious depletion in serotonin levels, paranoia and death.
The FDA has categorized MDMA as a Schedule I Controlled Substances Act and its manufacture, distribution, possession and use is severely regulated by the DEA.
Stimulants can be useful when used consciously or under the supervision of a physician. However, when abused, they can result in serious consequences when for the user. The potential for both physical and psychological dependence can also lead to painful biophysical and mental anguish. Stimulants are widely abused because they are easily accessible in their many formulations. Habituation can cause dependency to develop quickly which unfortunately, can be physically draining and take a long time to overcome and may be difficult without specialized medical treatment and rehabilitation.
If you or a loved one is addicted to Speed (amphetamine), please call our Drug Rehab Treatment Centers today at 877-855-3470. We can help you in your hope and quest for a drug-free lifestyle. Our qualified and compassionate call representatives are available 24/7 to answer any questions you have about amphetamine addiction and our treatment services.